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Additionally, it is not enough to conserve energy and thus obey the First Law.

Mechanics & Physics Conversions, Formulas & References

A machine that would deliver work while This First Law of violating the second law is thermodynamics identifies called a "perpetual-motion caloric, or heat, as a form machine of the second of energy. Value Name actinium aluminum americium antimony argon arsenic astatine barium berkelium beryllium bismuth boron. Name potassium praseodymium promethium protactinium radium radon rhenium rhodium rubidium ruthenium samarium scandium.

Psychometric Chart This slide set is accessed directly from the Techtrol Psychometrics web site. It is an excellent primer on the use of the psychometric chart.


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Sound Level Chart Min dBA 25 35 75 65 55 75 55 65 55 70 95 40 25 45 50 85 65 85 65 80 75 80 60 35 Max. Information on light addition and subtraction is included. Wavelength nanometers Additive Color System adding colors to ultimately make white. Navy's web site. Look for the USB logo. Hi-Speed USB 2. This award is given to innovators who have found new solutions to old problems.

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Basic Engineering References

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Once you've tried USB, we think you'll grow quite attached to it! Having trouble downloading or printing the pdfs on this page? Download the latest version of the free Acrobat Reader. Noise Figure Noise figure is the increase in noise power of a device from the input to the output that is greater that the signal gain.

In effect, it is the amount of decrease of the signal-to-noise ratio.

Like gain, noise figure can be expressed either as a ratio or in decibels. Cascade noise figure calculation is carried out by dealing with gain and noise figure as a ratio rather than decibels, and then converting back to decibels at the end. As the following equation shows, cascaded noise figure is effected most profoundly by the noise figure of components closest to the input of the system as long as some positive gain exists in the cascade. If only loss exists in the cascade, then the cascaded noise figure equals the magnitude of the total loss. The following equation is used to calculate cascaded noise figure as a ratio based on ratio values for gain and noise figure do not use decibel values.

Click here to see Agilent's online App Note on using a spectrum analyzer to measure noise figure. The following table lists a few conversion. See the "Noise Conversions" tab of the online calculator for calculating other values. NF dB 0. A power series describes all of the possible combinations of generated frequencies. As a device is driven farther into its nonlinear region, the amplitudes of the third order products increase while the powers of the input tones decrease. If the device was not limited in output power, then the powers of the intermodulation products would increase in power until they were eventually equal in power with the input tones at the output.

Assuming a gain of 1 0 dB the slope of the fundamental gain line would be ; the slope of the 2nd-order gain line would be The slope of the 2nd-order product line is relative to the fundamental gain line.

General References

Accordingly, the 2nd-order products increase in power at the same rate as the input tones and are always twice times farther away from the IP2 than the input tones when not near saturation. The power of the 2nd-order products can be predicted when the IP2 is known, or the IP2 can be predicted when the relative amplitudes of the 2nd-order tones and the input tones are known.

Calculating the cascaded values for IP2 requires the following operation based upon ratios for gain and IP2 do not use decibel values :. Here's a great link to a paper on intermod frequency prediction for any number of tones. When two or more tones are present in a nonlinear device, intermodulation products are created as a result. Assuming a gain of 1 0 dB the slope of the fundamental gain line would be ; the slope of the 3rd-order gain line would be The slope of the 3rd-order product line is relative to the fundamental gain line.

Accordingly, the 3rd-order products increase in power at twice the rate of the input tones and are always three times farther away from the IP3 than the input tones when not near saturation. The power of the 3rd-order products can be predicted when the IP3 is known, or the IP3 can be predicted when the relative amplitudes of the 3rd-order tones and the input tones are known.

Equal Input Powers see below for unequal powers. Calculating the cascaded values for IP3 requires the following operation based upon ratios for gain and IP3 do not use decibel values :. Click here to view an example cascaded system.

RF Cafe - Mechanical Conversions, Formulas & References [From Web]

Bessel functions of the first kind are shown in the graph below. In frequency modulation, the carrier and sideband frequencies disappear when the modulation index is equal to a zero crossing of the function for the nth sideband. For example, the carrier 0th sideband disappears when the Jn 0, plot equals zero. The 1st sideband disappears when the Jn 1, plot equals zero.

See FM. Referring back to Figure 1, it can be seen that the 3rdorder product line has a slope while the fundamental output line has a slope. Therefore, the 3rd-order products are always twice as far from the IP3 as the fundamental output. Noise Power Noise power is based on the thermal noise power at the input of the system, along with system gain and noise figure:.

Use the table below to calculate inductance and number of turns per the following formulas. PhD, MS Graduates. Electrophysics Seminars. Antennas Design. TeraHertz Lab. ECE Department.

University of Massachusetts. RF Cafe Links. Includes software for circuit simulators, system simulators, antennas, EM and transmission line simulators, schematic capture software, and all sorts of useful RF-microwave links.

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This is the mother lode. Ansoft Designer SV. Here you can download Ansoft Designer Student Version for free! This powerful software takes microwave, RF, high-speed, and communications design to a new level. This includes a complete RF linear circuit simulator, schematic and layout view, powerful design utilities, and post-processing.

It also includes a complete set of linear distributed transmission line models, discontinuities, vendor component parts, and ideal circuit elements. Smith Chart PDF. Engineers Calculator. You just won't believe how handy this tiny little calculator can be! Conversions, formulas, and references for all sorts of electrical engineering problems e.

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It's just amazing. Download it and use it.

You have to sign up for the RF GlobalNet online publication, which is free. Here is a free! You'll like this one. It runs on Win, possibly XP. Transmission line calculator TXline. Here is a very useful transmission line calculator for microstrip, stripline, coplanar waveguide, grounded CPW, and slot line, from Applied Wave Research. You can download this, and run the file under Windows.