From deserts to jungles, grasslands to bustling cities the series will reveal the huge variety of stunning landscapes primates are found in. A surge in primate research is revealing a new side to these intriguing animals, whilst the latest developments in camera technologies will enable us to film primates in sensational new ways. Apes, monkeys and lemurs are all primates, with over hundred species, found in every conceivable habitat, this is one of the most important and fascinating animal families on the planet.
Primates come in a staggering variety of shapes and sizes - from colossal gorillas to finger sized lemurs. Primates are tool users, problem solvers and political animals. They fascinate us, because we are one of them. Primates are facing an uncertain future; over half of the family are endangered. The third episode will showcase the hands on science behind the stories - heroic efforts to understand and conserve primates, highlighting the huge passion people have for these captivating animals. Nearly every species has its own strategy - some choose to fight, others to pursue, whilst others create a song and dance about it.
If you get your strategy wrong, the consequences can be life threatening, but if you get it right, you have a chance at the ultimate prize - genetic immortality. Each habitat provides a different challenge - how do creatures perform on the wide-open Grasslands when all their competitors can see their strategy? How do animals stand out in the crowded dating scene of the Jungle? What happens when your breeding timings are determined by the ephemeral nature of Freshwater? And how does marine life begin to even find a mate in the vast world of the Oceans?
The right strategy is often one of perspective.
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This series will tell stories from both the female and male points of view, taking a fresh look at who really is in charge when it comes to choosing the right partner. Lush ferny forests, jewel coloured reefs and white sandy beaches harbour an extraordinary cast of castaways and pioneers. In these magical worlds, life rules are rewritten, characters are otherworldly and evolution is on overdrive.
In this three-part blue chip series we discover the ancient island of Madagascar; isolated since the time of the dinosaurs, its spiny forests are harsh territory for wondrous leaping lemurs. We enter the lost world of Borneo, home to pot-bellied proboscis monkeys. And in the heart of the Pacific Ocean the brave new worlds of Hawaii, the youngest and remotest island archipelago of all, are revealed.
Hosting bizarre carnivorous caterpillars, here the improbability of arrival has been the greatest challenge of all. Using the latest technologies in filming, the beauty and strangeness of these incredible islands is revealed.
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Some of the toughest drone filming ever attempted follows million hawk-dodging bats and captures unique canopy eye views of the Bornean jungles. We dive in to deep flooded caves to reveal fossilized giants, and use split level cameras to join humpback mothers and calves in the shelter of tropical bays. On these isolated islands human cultures can be as strange as the wildlife. In Borneo we meet the Bajau who have evolved into record-breaking breath-hold divers. The Commissioning Editor is Tom Coveney.
BBC reveals unprecedented commitment to natural history with announcement of new landmark programmes up to Charlotte Moore. Date: Perfect Planet. This is the first chapter that truly allows us to offload some of the progran1mer's work onto the level designers, allowing them to perform their duties to the best of their abilities without involving a programmer.
This rule also defines a parser that is used in later chapters to load and interpret data files. Rule five, "Always Use the Right Tool for the Job," describes the data pipeline for a game in detail and presents an extendable program that can be used as a build tool. This program allows minimal data reb uilds-only ftles that have changed are reb uilt-and forms the b asis for the data processing routines found in rule six. Three different plug-in DLLs are created for the b uild tool developed in rule five, one for each of these data types. This chapter introduces a scripting language that can be used to explicitly defme a finite state machine for a variety of uses.
The culmination of this chapter is the pre- Introduction XVii sentation of a simple fighting game that is controlled almost completely by a finite state machine defined in script. This chapter presents an almost completely automated method for safely saving the current state of the game. The chapter ends by showing how the measured improvements to the speed of the game b ased on the finished optimizations might differ from expectations.
It wasn't always like this. In recent years, though, computers have gotten faster, and project sizes have ballooned, and it is now not uncommon to have half a dozen or a dozen programmers on a single project. More often than not, they cite the poor translation efforts of early compilers and the hidden cost ofthese features as justification for this.
Then there are the progressive programmers who use every language feature they can find, often without regard for the performance penalties associated with them. These are the programmers who load their code up with intertwining and serpentine template definitions, which only they can understand.
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To do this effectively, we need to understand what the compiler must do to achieve the functionality of each of the features. Additionally, there are four type modifiers that modify the size and behavior of these predefined types: signed, unsigned, short, and long. Unfortunately, the sizes of the predefined data types are not defined in terms of bits or bytes; they are defined in tenns of the minimum range of values that each type must hold.
Table 1. TABLE 1. We could 4 Game Programming Golden Rules get arow1d this by always defining our variables based on the range of values needed. However, even when a variable turns out to be larger than expected, this could still be a source of bugs, especially when using unsigned data types. Need convincing? Consider an unsigned, bit integer holding a value of 0, and then subtract 1 from it; what is the result? Now try it for an unsigned, bit integer. Another problem when writing games is that of the data cache; we want our data to be as small as possible, but we also ideally want it to fall neatly onto the underlying cache-lines.
The first thing we should do, then, is define ourselves a new set of data types whose sizes are predictable. The exact definition of these types could, and should, vary depending on the combination of compiler and target machine, in order to maintain their correct sizes.
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However, which types should we defme? At the very least, we need to be able to define 8-, , and bit signed and unsigned integers. It would also behoove us to define a type for unicode characters, since more likely than not, we will be making internationally localized versions of our game. These data type definitions are used throughout all the example code, both in the book and on the companion CD-ROM. Usually, a pointer takes the minimum amount of space required to uniquely define an address on the target platform.
For example, on a bit PC, pointers are usually 32 bits in length. Over the past few years, it has been acceptable to presume that the size of a pointer would be 4 bytes, but with the advent of the bit machines, this is no longer a safe assumption.
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Unlike with the default variable types, however, knowing the size of a pointer is important for a reason other than just structure alignment. This is directly analogous to the [ J operator, which de-references a pointer in multiples of the element size. In practice, this means that we must cast the pointer to a different data type before performing the arithmetic, and then back again afterwards. The ideal destination data type of this cast would be one in which the required arithmetic could be performed without modification. An example of when this would be useful is when parsing through a chunk-based file that has been loaded into memory.
The next chunk in the file immediately follows the chunk data for the previous chunk. To move between chunks, then, we need to be able to increment a pointer to a chunk by a given number of bytes.
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The first method that springs to mind is to cast the pointer to an integer, where all arithmetic works as expected. However, since the size of a pointer can change across machines, this is not the best way to do what we want-we would have to change the type of integer that we cast to when compiling the code for different pointer sizes. For a machine with bit pointers, we 6 Game Programming Golden Rules would cast to our new u32 type, but for a machine with bit pointers, we would have to cast to an as-yet-undefmed u64 type.
Luckily, there are other types that we can cast to where all arithmetic works as expected. If all pointer arithmetic is implicitly multiplied by the size of the pointed-to element, then we just have to choose a pointer type where the pointed-to element has a size of 1 byte. By casting to another pointer type, we ensure that no data is lost, since both pointers are guaranteed to be the same size.
A simple example of this is a while loop in which the loop variable is never changed. This would cause it to discard both the loop variable check since it always succeeds and any code after the loop since it is now unreachable. Many things could cause this to happen. Another possible example occurs if the variable is a reference to a hardware port, such as an internal clock.
So, why does the compiler optimize the code in this way? To answer this, we must look at the alternative situation, in which the compiler assumes that the value of every variable can be changed without its knowledge at any time. However, when the compiler must assume that any variable can change without its knowledge it cannot do this, since the value of this variable might change between its initial reading and the subsequent uses of it.
This has the effect of producing slow, bloated code, especially when there are multiple uses of large chains of indirection. The volatile Modifier In the vast majority of cases, though, variables do not change outside of the compiler's control. It makes sense, then, to have the programmer explicitly mark the cases where it can happen, and have the compiler treat these cases specially.
This is done through the volatile access modifier keyword.